Split 3

Split 3
July 14, 2020 Balkanium

“Everything happens in people, and the concrete is just recorded”

-Dinko Kovačić

 

The city is very similar to man. Both have their history and destiny. Both go through various phases and difficult moments that are often conditioned by political climate, economic climate, and, today, the pandemic crisis. Having dealt with the relationship between man, space and their interconnectedness, in my private work, my new story will showcase my knowledge construction and photography in Split 3, one of the largest urban projects in the former Yugoslavia.

A series of photographs show the similarity and alienation between the city and man caused by the COVID-19 virus in these times. But it also refers to a time when the same neighborhood, ten years after being built, did not function according to the ideas of urban planners and architects. The only purpose of the Split 3 neighborhood was to counter alienation and connect people to the space in a way that would make them better. Sometimes we are not aware of the space around us and just the same, the people around us. We live from day to day thinking that everything that is currently happening is normal. Split 3 opens up a lot of topics that concern us as beings and initiates a debate about the lack of relationships between people. Relationships are created when your eyes first meet. This series of photos is trying to establish a relationship with you.

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The extensive program “Split 3” was prepared and well made, and in 1968 a Yugoslav competition was announced. This competition was won by urban planners from Slovenia – Vladimir Mušič, Marjan Bežan and Nives Starc. Slovenian neighborhoods were conceived by Slovenian urban planners as a series of parallel apartment blocks in the east-west direction. Each consisted of two parallel parts: the northern higher and the southern which would be lower so as to not block the sunlight. There was a pedestrian street between them, which would level out the terrain. In this way, Slovenian urban planners transferred the spirit and culture of the Mediterranean fortress to the scale of the new socialist construction. After the urban planning, the second round of  the city architectural competition followed, and its goal was to choose the best architectural team which happened to consist of Dinko Kovačić, Frane Gotovac, Danko Lendić, Mihajlo Zorić, Ante Svarčić and Ivo Radić. The whole project was organized by the PISG (Split Construction Company) led by Josip Vojnović. During that period, everything worked perfectly, the atmosphere between all the participants worked well. There was no misunderstanding between urban planners, architects, and designers. Because of that, the architects had complete freedom to express themselves artistically and to make every work recognizable. Split 3, (which includes Trstenik, Mertojak, Žnjan, Visoka and Dragovode) was a neighborhood for 50 thousand people. It aroused worldwide interest, bringing delegations from all over the world to come and see the project. The Split 3 complex is a construction marvel. It was a major undertaking that changed the standard of living in Split.

 

 

Its full rise was “prevented” by the construction of sports and tourist facilities for the Mediterranean Games in 1979, for which it was necessary to ensure a constant inflow of public money. In fact, the project was never fully completed, a perfect example being Žnjan, which has been fertile ground for urban hell raising since the 90s. Various changes in urban planning contributed to many of architects from Slovenia returning to Ljubljana.

Also, the JNA, the most powerful investor, was able to meet its housing needs but somewhat later, due to socio-political changes, private ownership came to the fore in 1991 and the city became a collective product. At this point, the people were experiencing a new kind of convention, one where they were no longer aware of the rules. Split 3 remained just a story, a myth, that fit perfectly into the demographic growth that politics wanted.

After a little more than 50 years later, the neighborhoods of Split 3 are considered a positive example in Split in terms of the culture of togetherness and solidarity. Trstenik is the liveliest and most successful part of Split 3 – and is now under the worst attack of them all. Unfortunately, this neighborhood has been always been attacked by interpolations.

 

 

About ten years ago, the church was added to the urban style, and then the building of the ophthalmology clinic. Recently, the City of Split on the north side of the block launched a competition with a frighteningly ambitious project- a shopping center and two skyscrapers higher than twenty floors. This situation is a real example of profiteering in which there is no harmony and everything is subordinated to money and shows cracks in the Croatian concept of heritage protection. There is also a correlation between being urban and the fact that the consumer is always right and, as such, has the right to do whatever he wants for his money. This leads to a multitude of illegally built houses and buildings that were subsequently legalized.

 

 

The art group “Kvart”, consisting of Boris Šitum, Milan Brkić, and Rino Efendić, was also founded in Trstenik. Its most important feature and fulcrum is the connection to the neighborhood, and is also the place where they conduct actions, events, performances, exhibit works, and spatial installations. Trstenik, however, is also the suburb of a city, so it is a conscious retreat into the so-called “off” position, or resistance position. The famous inscription/installation “MEANING” is the work of Boris Šitum, which can have countless meanings for the observer.

What makes sense to you? Is Split 3 just a neighborhood or was it supposed to be the meaning of life?

It is up to you to decide.

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Photo and Text by Tomislav Marcijuš

Balkanium is supported via crowdfunding link here :

 

References:

– Dinko Kovačić: Split 3: Što mu je prethodilo, što je bio, što je danas?

– www-arhitekti.hr

-www.pogledaj.to

– BETONSKI SPAVAČI: Split, izmedju plana i kaosa

 


 

„Sve se dogadja u ljudima, a beton je samo zabilježeno“

-Dinko Kovačić

 

Grad je vrlo sličan kao i čovjek. On ima svoju povijest i sudbinu. Prolazi kroz razne faze i ima teške trenutke koji su često uvjetovatni političkom, gospodarskom i, danas, pandemijskom krizom. Baveći se u svome privatnom radu odnosom između čovjeka i prostora i njihove međusobne povezanosti, moja nova priča spojit će moju građevinsku struku i fotografiju u Split 3, jedan od najvećih urbanističkih projekata u bivšoj Jugoslaviji.

 

Serija fotografija prikazuje sličnost i otuđenost između grada i čovjeka koja je u ovim vremenima posljedica virusa COVID-19, ali se paralelno referira i na vrijeme u kojem isti taj kvart, desetak godina nakon izgradnje, nije funkcionirao po zamislima urbanista i arhitekata. Jedina svrha kvarta Split 3 bila je suprotstaviti se otuđenju i međusobno povezati ljude s prostorom kako bi ih učinili boljima. Ponekad nismo svjesni prostora oko sebe pa tako ni ljudi. Živimo iz dana u dan misleći da je sve što se trenutno događa normalno. Split 3 otvara puno tema koje se tiču nas samih i pokreće raspravu o pomankanju odnosa među ljudima. Odnosi se stvaraju kada nam se pogledi često sreću. Serija fotografija pokušava ostvariti odnos s vama.

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Opsežni program „Split 3“ bio je pripremljen i dobro izrađen, te je 1968. raspisan jugoslavenski natječaj kojeg su dobili urbanisti iz Slovenije – Vladimir Mušič, Marjan Bežan i Nives Starc. Splitske kvartove slovenski su urbanisti zamislili kao niz paralelnih stambenih blokova u smjeru istok-zapad. Svaki se sastojao od dvije usporedne lamele: sjeverne više i južne koja bi bila niža da sjevernoj ne otima sunce. Između njih uvijek je bila pješačka ulica koja bi skalinadama svladavala denivelaciju terena. Na taj su način slovenski urbanisti u razmjere socijalističke novogradnje prenijeli duh i kulturu mediteranske kalete. Nakon urbanističkog, uslijedio je uži gradski arhitektonski natječaj, a cilj mu je bio odabir arhitektonskog tima kojeg su činili Dinko Kovačić, Frane Gotovac, Danko Lendić, Mihajlo Zorić, Ante Svarčić i Ivo Radić. Cijeli projekt organizirao je PIS (Poduzece za izgradnju Split) koji je vodio Josip Vojnović. U tom periodu, sve je funkcioniralo savršeno, atmosfera između svih sudionika funkcionirala je izvrsno. Nije bilo nesporazuma izmedju urbanista, arhitekata i projektanata.  Zbog toga su arhitekti imali potpunu slobodu da umjetnički se izraziti i da svaki rad bude prepoznatljiv. Split 3, (u koji spada i Trstenik, Mertojak, Žnjan, Visoka i Dragovode) bio je  kvart za 50 tisuca ljudi. Izazvao je svjetski interes, delegacije iz cijelog svijeta dolazile su vidjeti projekt. Kompleks Split 3 je građevinsko čudo. Bio je to velikih pothvat koji je promijenio standard življenja u Splitu.

 

 

Njegov potpuni uspon “onemogućila” je izgradnja sportskih i turističkih objekata za Mediteranske igre 1979. godine, za koje je bilo potrebno osigurati stalni priljev javnoga novca. Zapravo, projekt nikad nije do kraja završen, a jedan od primjera je Žnjan koji postaje plodno tlo za urbanističko divljanje od 90-ih. Došlo je i do raznih promjenama u urbanističkim promišljanjima i mnogi arhitekti iz Slovenije, vratili su se u Ljubljanu.

Takodjer, JNA kao najmoćniji investitor, zadovoljio je svoje potrebe za stanovanjem, a nešto kasnije zbog društveno-političkih promjena, 1991. godine privatno vlasništvo je došlo u prvi plan, a grad je postao kolektivni proizvod. Sve su to tada bile nove situacije gdje su ljudima pravila bila nepoznata. Split 3 je ostao samo priča koja se odlično uklopila u demografski rast kojeg je htjela politika.

 

 

Nakon nešto više od 50 godina, kvartovi Splita 3 vrijede kao pozitivna iznimka u Splitu po kulturi zajedništva i solidarnosti. Jedan od njih osobito prednjači, a to je Trstenik, najživlji i najuspješniji dio Splita 3 – sada je najviše na udaru. Riječ je o kvartu koji je i do sada bio napadan interpolacijama. Prije desetak godina u urbanistički je slog ubačena crkva, a potom i zgrada oftalmološke klinike. Nedavno je Grad Split na sjevernoj strani bloka pokrenuo natječaj sa zastrašujuće ambicioznim projektnim zadatkom – šoping centrom i dva nebodera viša od dvadeset katova. Upravo je ova situacija pravi primjer profiterstva u kojem ne postoji sklad i sve je podređeno novcu i pokazuje pukotine u hrvatskom konceptu zaštite baštine. Također dolazi do poklapanja urbanističkog i toga da je potrošač uvijek u pravu i kao takav ima pravo za svoj novac raditi što god želi. Tako dolazi i do mnoštva nelegalno izgrađenih kuća i objekata koje su naknadno legalizirane.

 

 

U Trsteniku je takodjer osnovana i umjetnička grupa „Kvart“ koju čine Boris Šitum, Milan Brkić i Rino Efendić. Njezino najvažnije obilježje i uporišna točka jest vezanost uz kvart koji je i mjesto gdje provode akcije, događanja, performanse, izlažu radove i prostorne instalacije. Trstenik je, međutim, i periferija jednog grada pa je riječ o svjesnom povlačenju u tzv. „off“ poziciju, poziciju otpora. Poznati natpis/instalacija „SMISAO“ djelo je Borisa Šituma koja za promatrača može imati bezbroj značenja.

Što je za vas smisao? Je li Split 3 samo kvart ili je trebao biti smisao života ? Na vama je da odlučite.

 

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Fotografije i tekst – Tomislav Marcijuš

Balkanium is supported via crowdfunding link here :

 

Reference:

– Dinko Kovačić: Split 3: Što mu je prethodilo, što je bio, što je danas?

– www-arhitekti.hr

-www.pogledaj.to

– BETONSKI SPAVAČI: Split, izmedju plana i kaosa

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